THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ARCHITECTURE AND SYMMETRY IN PERSIAN ARCHITECTURE: A CASE STUDY OF SHEIKH LOṬFOLLĀH MOSQUE IN ISFAHAN
Ahmad Danaeinia1*1, Mohammad Fattahpour**
* Address: University of Kashan, Faculty of Architecture and Arts, Department of Architecture, Km 6 Qotb-e Ravandi Blvd., Kashan, 87317-53153, Iran.
** Address: University of Kashan, Faculty of Architecture and Arts, Department of Architecture
1 corresponding author
Abstract: Symmetry is the perfect sample of balance and stability. According to this principle, historic monuments have achieved stability in balanced relations; no matter if we take one component of them or the entire building, it is obvious in their structure and ornaments. Sheikh Loṭfollāh Mosque, as an excellent example from the Safavid era in Iran, also follows this pattern. However, former studies about it have only given descriptions of the building and did not examine its durability based on symmetry. Moreover, this paper seeks to explore the possible relations between symmetry and architecture. If there is any relation, we ask, how can the patterns of symmetry be recognised? Our research method was to gather data via library and field studies. The results show that the mosque’s architectural patterns have followed symmetrical templates. These templates can be found in the mosque’s plans, structure, façade and ornamentation. Symmetry appears as reflectional, rotational, or translational symmetry (similitude), or simply as the basis of the building’s stability.
Keywords: symmetry, balance, Sheikh Loṭfollāh Mosque, Isfahan, Iran.