Symmetry: Culture and Science
Volume 30, Number 1, pages 043-058 (2019)


Pál Csanády *

* Artifex Publishing House, 25 Bikszádi utca, Budapest, 1119, Hungary.
E-mail: csanady.pal@artifexkiado.hu

Abstract: In this study we explore the effect of the form of space on people. In our previous study we made enclosure measurable, and we developed a new index called architectural space density. This is an integral along the perceived surface, what is (mathematically) reached for a subject with the average of the surface distances (d) in each direction is calculated logarithmically (ASD  e-d). We hypothesised that in more closed space, less intensive activities are preferred. We examined the effect of space density (enclosure) on activity through re-analysis by an ArchiCAD API-program of three psychological observations of the use of space published by Canter, Demirbas and Demirkan, and Kamino. We found a strong negative correlation (r = -0.66; p < 0.001) between ASD and the level of activity (MET) of people taking place. Refuge preferences are extensively interpreted by the survival-advantageous behaviour of human ancestors; therefore we were looking for interpretation in this field. We hypothesised that not only refuge, but escape also, is a strategy for survival-advantageous behaviour. This gives a more extensive interpretation on the prospect-refuge theory of Appleton.

Keywords: space density, enclosure, prospect, refuge, MET.