1 **Symmetries and Invariances in Physics**

Centenary thematic issue

2 **Symmetries and Proportions in Architecture**

Sixcentenary thematic issue

**1 Symmetries and Invariances in Physics:
Editorial annotation**

**Symmetries and Invariances in Physics:****Editorial annotation**

The physics community celebrates, in 2018, the *centenary* of the publication of the *two famous theorems by Emmy Noether.* That celebration also acknowledges the extension of her two theorems by R. Utiyama (1956 and 1959).

The General Theory of Relativity (GTR,1915-16) opened the door for the development of the exact formulation of the correspondence between global and local symmetries; relating gauge symmetries to variational principles. This inspired F. Klein to encourage E. Noether to elaborate the mathematical bases of the invariances implied in the gravitational theory. The latter are known as the two mathematical theorems by E. Noether on the relation between symmetries and invariances (that were completed four decades later by R. Utiyama). These theorems led physicists further, beyond the borders of the gravitational theory. No new discovery in field theories, particle physics and a few other specialised subdisciplines of physics could avoid the consequences of those theorems formulated during the last hundred years. Without those developments, one could not identify physical invariances with a class of symmetries. The history of modern physics witnessed a seemingly endless sequence of detecting new symmetries and their breaking, then deeper symmetries, and those breakings, and so on. Gauge theories based on those developments led to new chapters in textbooks of physics. Many (undergraduate) textbooks simplify the Noether theorems by indicating that any invariance involves a symmetry (or more narrowly, a conservation law); and also that there corresponds an invariance to any symmetry. But, in fact, the Noether theorems involve much more and allow us to look much deeper.

The planned thematic issue of *Symmetry: Culture and Science* would like to pay a tribute, by symmetrists, to the 100th anniversary of the birth of the two Noether theorems:

– On the one hand, the aim is to publish a few specific chapters reviewing relevant issues in the* history* of physics in the last hundred years. Review papers are welcome.

– On the other hand, the aim is also to publish papers that describe a few* important developments, discoveries, theories and decisive experiments in physics*, as a result of the Noether theorems and their subsequent application of mathematical (algebraic, geometrical) methods. The *non-historical type of papers* should remain in the domain of mathematical and/or theoretical physics, however the authors are expected to describe the significance of the theorems treated and the methods they offer for the general readers of *Symmetry*. Also welcome are descriptions of new achievements rooted in the application of invariance principles and their related by-products. Although physics has concentrated mainly on conservation (i.e., invariance under translation in time) the Noether theorems, especially the 2nd, allow many more symmetries (invariances). Those possibilities, so far, appear to not having been exploited in physics. References to any such attempts or applications are welcome.

* Questions to be answered*:

**1****[Past – 1918]** *How do you assess the importance of the Noether theorems, in retrospect, after a hundred years*?

**2****[Past – 1918-2017]** *How do you evaluate the impact, during the past century, of the application of* (one or both of) *the Noether theorems in your field of research*?

**3****[Present – 2018]** *If applicable,* *how have you applied the 2**nd** **Noether theorem in your own research and/or education*?

**4****[Future]** *What do you consider to be unexploited opportunities* (if any) *for the application of the 2**nd** **Noether theorem*?

**5**** ****[Present – targeting physicists, mathematicians]** *What can you tell our contemporaries on generalisations of the Noether theorems (considering contributions by mathematicians and physicists during the past hundred years)*?

**6**** ****[Present – targeting students]** *How would you explain the difference between the two Noether theorems to an undergraduate student, or to a non-specialised reader of* Symmetry: Culture and Science? *How do you explain the difference between Noether’s and Utiyama’s theorems to the same target group(s)*?

**7**** ****[Present – targeting representatives of other disciplines, including artists] **If possible, *please mention what the purely mathematical Noether theorems convey to non-physicist scholars*!

Please, choose 3 of the above questions and answer them in 2-5 pages each.

Most readers of the Journal are not mathematical physicists, and those who are mathematical physicists are not likely to be specialised in Noether-type fields. Moreover, some are not physicists but are open minded to learning about physical symmetries. In short, equations and math formulas can be applied, but technical details should be avoided. Symbols in the formulas should be explained in the text. The essence of the physical theories explained are expected to be formulated more in words and less in formulas.

Please, follow the *instructions for authors* and use the MS Word (preferred) and TeX style-sheets downloadable from the link Instructions at the bottom of the page. Please, take special care of: (1) the page size, margins, and running heads; (2) the use of the built in styles; and (3) follow precisely the given style of references. MS Word users, please, use MathType for formulas and equations.

The *length* of the papers may vary from 6 to 16 pages, including illustrations. Note, the papers will be published both electronically and printed. We can publish *colour* illustrations online, but we can print those illustrations in *b/w* only. The latter means that colours should be made distinguishable in grey-scales after conversion into *b/w*.

Extended* Deadline* for submissions is *30 March* 2018. The papers will be peer-reviewed before a decision is made about their acceptance.

*Submission*: Please, send the manuscripts to the Editor.

**2** **Symmetries and Proportions in Architecture:**

Guest editor: *Vilmos Katona*

** Editorial annotation**

The architects’ community celebrates the 600^{th} anniversary of Filippo Brunelleschi’s revolutionary design for the dome of Florence Cathedral, the symbolic event which can claim to be commemorated as the birth of modern architectural thinking.

A modern understanding of physical laws and the mathematical tools for calculating stresses were centuries in the future, but Brunelleschi’s intuitive design marked a break with the medieval logic of construction (or ‘scholasticism’, according to Panofsky) as well as a return to the classic Pantheon, thus, to a different concept of geometrical compactness and balance. This turnaround resulted in centuries of development and experiments on space, symmetry, scale and proportion to give rise to 20^{th}-century constructivism and various trends in modern and postmodern architecture. Contemporary praxis is still challenged by such experiments from minimalism to parametricism, from the complexity of space to the variability of generative structures.

The planned thematic issue of *Symmetry: Culture and Science* would like to pay a tribute by symmetrists to the 600^{th} anniversary of the birth of renaissance-modern architecture.

– On the one hand, it would like to publish papers that describe a few important developments, discoveries, theories and consequent decisive experiments in contemporary architecture (explanations of new spatial concepts and the resulted application of methods are prioritised). The non-historical type of papers should remain in the domain of architectural theory, however the authors are expected to describe the significance of the treated theorems and the methods they offer for the general readers of *Symmetry*. Description of new achievements rooted in the application of geometrical proportions and their related by-products are welcome. History of architecture has concentrated mainly on conservation (i.e., monuments and restoration). However, geometrical proportions and techniques for linear perspective developed by Filippo Brunelleschi and their later influences in modern architecture allow much methodological considerations. Those possibilities are so far not exploited in contemporary disputes. References to any such attempt and application are welcome.

– On the other hand, this issue aims at publishing a few specific chapters reviewing relevant issues in the history of architecture in the last six hundred years. Review papers are welcome.

Most readers of the Journal are not architectural historians or theorists, and those who are concerned about these disciplines are not likely to be specialised in the specific field chosen by the author. Moreover, some are not architects but are open minded to learning about architectural symmetries. In short, technical terms and phrases from theory can be applied, but technical details should be avoided. Special abbreviations or formulas should be clarified in the text. The essence of the architectural theories explained are expected to be formulated more in words and less in formulas.

Please, follow the *instructions for authors* and use the MS Word (preferred) and TeX style-sheets downloadable from the bottom of the page Instructions. Please, take special care of: (1) the page size, margins, running heads; (2) the use of the built in styles; and (3) follow precisely the given style of references. MS Word users, please, use MathType for formulas and equations.

The *length* of the papers may vary from 6 to 16 pages, including illustrations. Note, the papers will be published both electronically and printed. We can publish *colour* illustrations online, but we can print those illustrations in *b/w* only. The latter means that colours should be made distinguishable in grey-scales after conversion into b/w.

Extended* Deadline* for submissions is 28 February 2018. The papers will be peer-reviewed before decision on their acceptance.

*Submission*: Please, send the manuscripts to the issue’s **Editor**.